Future Challenges and Mitigation Methods for High Photovoltaic Penetration: A Survey
Integration of high volume (high penetration) of photovoltaic (PV) generation with power grids consequently leads to some technical challenges that are mainly due to the intermittent nature of solar energy, the volume of data involved in the smart grid architecture, and the impact power electronic-based smart inverters. These challenges include reverse power flow, voltage fluctuations, power quality issues, dynamic stability, big data challenges and others. This paper investigates the existing challenges with the current level of PV penetration and looks into the challenges with high PV penetration in future scenarios such as smart cities, transactive energy, proliferation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), possible eclipse events, big data issues and environmental impacts. Within the context of these future scenarios, this paper reviewed the existing solutions and provides insights to new and future solutions that could be explored to ultimately address these issues and improve the smart grid’s security, reliability and resiliency.